Currently, the most common types of nuclear reactor fuel are: Some believe thorium is key to developing a new generation of cleaner, safer nuclear power. A scaled up 300-MW version was then built and operated at Fort St Vrain, CO from 1976 to 1989. STL is designing a generation IV high-temperature, gas-cooled, pebble-bed reactor, the HTMR100 (100 MWth high-temperature modular reactor). [58] The Centre had sanctioned Rs. Thank you for helping build the largest language community on the internet. China expects to put thorium reactors into commercial use by 2030.[46]. 1 ways to abbreviate Thorium High-temperature Reactor. [72], Some experts and politicians want thorium to be "the pillar of the U.S. nuclear future. As with other inactive reactor facilities, costs are still being incurred. In 1968, Nobel laureate and discoverer of plutonium, Glenn Seaborg, publicly announced to the Atomic Energy Commission, of which he was chairman, that the thorium-based reactor had been successfully developed and tested. During that period, the government of the United States also built an experimental molten salt reactor using U-233 fuel, the fissile material created by bombarding thorium with neutrons. The engineering maturity of pebble bed reactors, supported by experimental facilities, makes the HTMR100 as a Generation IV reactor licensable within the next few years. [48] Validation of its core reactor physics was underway by late 2017. of the PFBR to September 2016,[62] but India's commitment to long-term nuclear energy production is underscored by the approval in 2015 of ten new sites for reactors of unspecified types,[63] though procurement of primary fissile material—preferably plutonium—may be problematic due to India's low uranium reserves and capacity for production. Moir, Ralph W. and Teller, Edward. The selection of water as reactor coolant was dangerous, however; it created the possibility of water escaping as high-temperature, high-pressure steam, or even worse reacting with metals in the reactor to release hydrogen gas, which could then cause an explosion. Thorium is mostly found with the rare earth phosphate mineral, monazite, which contains up to about 12% thorium phosphate, but 6–7% on average. In late June 2012, India announced that their "first commercial fast reactor" was near completion making India the most advanced country in thorium research. "[76] In 1992, while a resident professor in Tel Aviv, Israel, he founded the US company, Thorium Power Ltd., near Washington, D.C., to build thorium reactors. It fed power to Germany's grid for 432 days in the late 1980s, before it was shut down for cost, mechanical and other reasons. "[17] According to Martin, "China has made clear its intention to go it alone," adding that China already has a monopoly over most of the world's rare earth minerals. Thorium is a metal with radioactive properties that has the symbol Th and the atomic number 90 in the periodic table, and can be used as nuclear fuel in power plants to generate clean electricity. By 1992, a group of firms planned to proceed with construction of a HTR-500, the successor of the THTR-300, but up-rated to a thermal output of 1250 megawatts and an electrical output of 500 megawatts. [7][8] Weinberg himself recalls this period: [Congressman] Chet Holifield was clearly exasperated with me, and he finally blurted out, "Alvin, if you are concerned about the safety of reactors, then I think it may be time for you to leave nuclear energy." The pebble bed thorium high-temperature reactor THTR 300 was shut down on September 1, 1989, after > 16 000 h operation time. "[11] Nuclear physicist Victor J. Stenger, for one, first learned of it in 2012: It came as a surprise to me to learn recently that such an alternative has been available to us since World War II, but not pursued because it lacked weapons applications. Producing Thorium pebbles for the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR). As of July 2013 the major equipment of the PFBR had been erected and the loading of "dummy" fuels in peripheral locations was in progress. ... his team built a working reactor .... and he spent the rest of his 18-year tenure trying to make thorium the heart of the nation’s atomic power effort. Reactor Details. 5,677 crore. [4], A report by the Bellona Foundation in 2013 concluded that the economics are quite speculative. That research led to the Peach Bottom, PA 40-MW reactor that pro- duced electricity from 1966 to 1974. THTR-300 was only in full service for 423 days. [68], In Britain, one organisation promoting or examining research on thorium-based nuclear plants is The Alvin Weinberg Foundation. Though named thorium high temperature reactor, mostly U-235 was fissioned. [3] In 2009, Congressman Joe Sestak unsuccessfully attempted to secure funding for research and development of a destroyer-sized reactor [reactor of a size to power a destroyer] using thorium-based liquid fuel. Meaning; PWR. On the research potential of thorium-based nuclear power, Richard L. Garwin, winner of the Presidential Medal of Freedom, and Georges Charpak advise further study of the Energy amplifier in their book Megawatts and Megatons (2001), pp. One of these reactors is the High Temperature Reactor (HTR), which consists of a randomly packed bed of fuel pebbles that are cooled by helium. The HTMR100 will be cooled with helium gas and operate at … STL has designed a thorium refinery for the production of reactor-grade thorium. Suggest to this list. It is therefore an important and potentially viable technology that seems able to contribute to building credible, long-term nuclear energy scenarios. [64], P3Tek, an agency of the Indonesia Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resource, has reviewed a thorium molten salt reactor by Thorcon called the TMSR-500. The 300 MWe Thorium High Temperature Reactor (THTR)at Hamm-Uentrop in Germany operated with thorium-HEU fuel between 1983 and 1989, when it was shut down due to technical problems. [61], Delays have since postponed the commissioning [criticality?] Thorium-based nuclear power generation is fueled primarily by the nuclear fission of the isotope uranium-233 produced from the fertile element thorium. The HTMR100 Reactor is a High Temperature Gas Cooled Modular Reactor. The THTR-300 served as a prototype high-temperature reactor (HTR) to use the TRISO pebble fuel produced by the AVR, an experimental pebble bed operated by VEW. In particular the thermal conductivity is important, since it leads to a lower fuel pellets temperature. “Thorium reactors are safe” Wrong. The heat source is based on a fuel technology with intrinsic safety characteristics. The […] The THTR 300 is a project that is jointly sponsored by the Federal Republic of Germany, North Rhine-Westphalia, and Hochtemperatur-Kernkraftwerk GmbH. In 2013 India's 300 MWe AHWR (pressurized heavy water reactor) was slated to be built at an undisclosed location. It was decided to shut down THTR-300. [48], India's government is also developing up to 62, mostly thorium reactors, which it expects to be operational by 2025. [82][83] Proved reserves are a good indicator of the total future supply of a mineral resource. Category: Reactor Designs, Technology, Thorium. The THTR-300 was a helium-cooled high-temperature reactor with a pebble bed core consisting of approximately 670,000 spherical fuel compacts each 6 centimetres (2.4 in) in diameter with particles of uranium-235 and thorium-232 fuel embedded in a graphite matrix. Reactor, Pebble, Thorium. Supervisor: Prof E Mulder, Post-Graduate School of Nuclear Science and Engineering. In 2014, the Generation IV international forum confirmed the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) as one of 6 promising reactor technologies that should be pursued in order to develop advanced reactors suitable for deployment in the 2030’s. https://www.nextbigfuture.com/2019/09/p3tek-recommends-thorcon-molten-salt-nuclear-reactor-for-indonesia.html, In May 2010, researchers from Ben-Gurion University of the Negev in Israel and Brookhaven National Laboratory in New York began to collaborate on the development of thorium reactors,[65] aimed at being self-sustaining, "meaning one that will produce and consume about the same amounts of fuel," which is not possible with uranium in a light water reactor. Thereafter, thorium is to be the only fuel. The preceding figures are reserves and as such refer to the amount of thorium in high-concentration deposits inventoried so far and estimated to be extractable at current market prices; millions of times more total exist in Earth's 3×1019 tonne crust, around 120 trillion tons of thorium, and lesser but vast quantities of thorium exist at intermediate concentrations. There have been several significant demonstrations of the use of thorium-based fuels to generate electricity in several reactor types. Reactor . [17] Monazite is a good source of REEs (Rare Earth Element), but monazites are currently not economical to produce because the radioactive thorium that is produced as a byproduct would have to be stored indefinitely. It started operating in 1983, synchronized with the grid in 1985, operated at full power in February 1987 and was shut down September 1, 1989. However nothing is currently in any stage of development. ", "UK Moltex seeks to deploy its Stable Salt Reactor in Canada", Initiates Thorium MSR Project « Energy from Thorium, "China Takes Lead in Race for Clean Nuclear Power", "The U.S. government lab behind China's nuclear power push", "Watch replay of nuclear’s future, with dash of rare earth, political intrigue", "Chinese scientists urged to develop new thorium nuclear reactors by 2024", "Candu Signs Expanded Agreement with China to Further Develop Recycled Uranium and Thorium Fuelled CANDU Reactors", https://sg.news.yahoo.com/amphtml/china-hopes-play-leading-role-220307940.html, "The Thing About Thorium: Why The Better Nuclear Fuel May Not Get A Chance", "Design of World's first Thorium based nuclear reactor is ready", Energy policy of India#Power Generation capacity in India, "Considering an Alternative Fuel for Nuclear Energy", "First commercial fast reactor nearly ready", "How Homi Bhabha's vision turned India into a nuclear R&D leader", "A future energy giant? The thorium fuel cycle is a potential way to produce long term nuclear energy with low radio-toxicity waste. The Molten Salt Fast Neutron Reactor (MSFR), which will take in thorium fuel cycle, recycling of actinides, closed Th/U fuel cycle with no U enrichment, with enhanced safety and minimal wastes. Over half of its 674,000 pebbles cont… The very-high-temperature reactor (VHTR) (see Fig. The THTR-300's power conversion system was similar to the Fort St. Vrain reactor in the USA, in that the reactor coolant transferred the reactor core's heat to water. India's thorium-based nuclear plans", "India plans 'safer' nuclear plant powered by thorium", "India's Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor at advanced stage of completion", http://pib.nic.in/newsite/erelease.aspx?relid=98897, "PFBR: Parliamentary panel slams govt for 'inordinate delays, "Government approves new sites for setting up nuclear power projects", "Self-sustaining nuclear energy from Israel", "Safe nuclear: Japanese utility elaborates on thorium plans", "Norway ringing in thorium nuclear New Year with Westinghouse at the party", "Development of Tiny Thorium Reactors Could Wean the World Off Oil In Just Five Years | Popular Science", "U.S. partners with China on new nuclear", Congressman Sestak's Amendments in National Defense Authorization Act Pass House, "UTPB, private company to push for advanced reactor", "Advanced reactor plan gets off the ground in Texas", https://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2008/6345-uranium-2007.pdf, International Atomic Energy Agency presentation by Jim Kennedy, Mass and Composition of the Continental Crust, "Nuclear power from thorium: different options", "Conceptual design of Indian molten salt breeder reactor", Thorium fuel cycle – Potential benefits and challenges, International Thorium Energy Organisation – IThEO.org, International Thorium Energy Committee – iThEC, "Energy From Thorium: A Nuclear Waste Burning Liquid Salt Thorium Reactor", “Uranium Is So Last Century – Enter Thorium, the New Green Nuke”, "Skeptoid #555: Thorium Reactors: Fact and Fiction", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Thorium-based_nuclear_power&oldid=996586118, Wikipedia introduction cleanup from August 2020, Articles covered by WikiProject Wikify from August 2020, All articles covered by WikiProject Wikify, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Despite the documented history of thorium nuclear power, many of today's nuclear experts were nonetheless unaware of it. On September 1, 1989, the THTR-300 was deactivated due to its rising cost; in August 1989, the THTR company almost bankrupted after a long period of shut down due to broken components in the hot gas duct. I was speechless. 4.44 a unit. "In the past, the government was interested in nuclear power because of the energy shortage. Thorium is considered the "most abundant, most readily available, cleanest, and safest energy source on Earth," adds science writer Richard Martin. Student: SK Gintner. THTR-300 (Thorium High-Temperature Reactor) Permanent Shutdown. [50] It expects to produce around 25% of its electricity from nuclear power. Thermal processes using high temperature gas cooled reactors (HTGRs) could be a sustainable and environmentally friendly alternative to the presently used various conventional chemical processes. Significant and expensive testing, analysis and licensing work is first required, requiring business and government support. If uranium were an asset, it would be a long-term CD with a penalty for convenient withdrawal. [37] The proposed 10 MW demonstration reactor in Chile could be used to power a 20 million litre/day desalination plant. Thorium-based fuel cycles: Saving uranium in a 200 MW th pebble bed high temperature reactor. As Moir and Teller later wrote, "The competition came down to a liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) on the uranium-plutonium cycle and a thermal reactor on the thorium-233U cycle, the molten salt breeder reactor. By: Diarmuid Foley. This page was last edited on 27 December 2020, at 14:11. [49], According to Dr R K Sinha, chairman of their Atomic Energy Commission, "This will reduce our dependence on fossil fuels, mostly imported, and will be a major contribution to global efforts to combat climate change." As was determined in 1989, dismantling would begin after approximately 30 years in safe enclosure.[4]. The thermal output of the core was 750 megawatts; heat was transferred to the helium coolant, which then transported its heat to water, which then was used to generate electricity via a Rankine cycle. Some experts note possible specific disadvantages of thorium nuclear power: Research and development of thorium-based nuclear reactors, primarily the Liquid fluoride thorium reactor (LFTR), MSR design, has been or is now being done in the United States, United Kingdom, Germany, Brazil, India, China, France, the Czech Republic, Japan, Russia, Canada, Israel, Denmark and the Netherlands. The LMFBR had a larger breeding rate ... and won the competition." The fuel supply had already been difficult before this decision, and now it was truly at risk. "[66], In late 2012, Norway's privately owned Thor Energy, in collaboration with the government and Westinghouse, announced a four-year trial using thorium in an existing nuclear reactor. This happened just a couple of days after the Chernobyl disaster. The fourth reason for the high energy production is the MSR’s high operating temperature (550-700 degrees Celcius) that yields higher efficiencies of electricity production (Juhasz, et al., 2009, p. 4), (Hargraves & Moir, 2010, p. 311). Possibly", "Uranium Is So Last Century – Enter Thorium, the New Green Nuke", "Obama could kill fossil fuels overnight with a nuclear dash for thorium", "Alvin Radkowsky, 86, Developer Of a Safer Nuclear Reactor Fuel", Controlling threats to nuclear security a holistic model, "Safe nuclear does exist, and China is leading the way with thorium", http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/TE_1450_web.pdf, "High Efficiency Nuclear Power Plants Using Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor Technology", "Thorium fuel cycle – Potential benefits and challenges", Certain issues of economic prospects of thorium-based nuclear energy systems, "The thorium molten salt reactor: Moving on from the MSBR", "Thorium: Not a near-term commercial nuclear fuel", "Thorium power has a protactinium problem", "CERN to host conference on thorium technologies for energy", "Lightbridge Corp : Hans Blix Urges Support for Thorium Power Development", "Thorium Power Canada is in advanced talks with Chile and Indonesia for 10 MW and 25 MW solid thorium fueled reactors", "Moltex to partner in nuclear research and innovation cluster", "Second company investing in nuclear technology in N.B. "This is definitely a race," he added. 5,677 crore for building the PFBR and “we will definitely build the reactor within that amount,” Mr. Kumar asserted. In addition, the transition to thorium could be done through the incineration of weapons grade plutonium (WPu) or civilian plutonium. [74][75], Alvin Radkowsky, chief designer of the world's second full-scale atomic electric power plant in Shippingport, Pennsylvania, founded a joint US and Russian project in 1997 to create a thorium-based reactor, considered a "creative breakthrough. 3,492 crore, revised to Rs. "[67] In 2013, Aker Solutions purchased patents from Nobel Prize winning physicist Carlo Rubbia for the design of a proton accelerator-based thorium nuclear power plant. The seventh is still conceptual, although currently in development by many countries:[17]. Because of its inherent safety, they expect that similar designs could be set up "within" populated cities, like Mumbai or Delhi. [53] That vision of using thorium in place of uranium was set out in the 1950s by physicist Homi Bhabha. 4.30) is a further step in the evolutionary development of high-temperature reactors (HTRs). As of 2020, there are no operational thorium reactors in the world.[1]. The study reported that building a ThorCon TMSR-500 would meet Indonesia's regulations for nuclear energy safety and performance. "[15], The World Nuclear Association explains some of the possible benefits[16], The thorium fuel cycle offers enormous energy security benefits in the long-term—due to its potential for being a self-sustaining fuel without the need for fast neutron reactors. The THTR-300 was a helium-cooled high-temperature reactor with a pebble-bed reactor core consisting of approximately 670,000 spherical fuel compacts each 6 centimetres (2.4 in) in diameter with particles of uranium-235 and thorium-232 fuel embedded in a graphite matrix. [44], In early 2012, it was reported that China, using components produced by the West and Russia, planned to build two prototype thorium MSRs by 2015, and had budgeted the project at $400 million and requiring 400 workers. The German THTR-300 was a prototype commercial power station using thorium as fertile and highly enriched U-235 as fissile fuel. Martin explains that Weinberg's unwillingness to sacrifice potentially safe nuclear power for the benefit of military uses forced him to retire: Weinberg realized that you could use thorium in an entirely new kind of reactor, one that would have zero risk of meltdown. Sign in to disable ALL ads. There is a higher cost of fuel fabrication and reprocessing than in plants using traditional solid fuel rods. In the hybrid thorium setup, thorium-plutonium pellets power a … Now they are more interested because of smog," said Professor Li Zhong, a scientist working on the project. High temperature gas reactors High temperature gas reactor designs using thorium fuel were proposed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratories in 1947. "[3], After studying the feasibility of using thorium, nuclear scientists Ralph W. Moir and Edward Teller suggested that thorium nuclear research should be restarted after a three-decade shutdown and that a small prototype plant should be built.[4][5][6]. BHAVINI builds breeder reactors in India. Consequently, some radioactive dust was released to the environment. [45], Currently two reactors are under construction in the Gobi desert, with completion expected in 2020. India has projected meeting as much as 30% of its electrical demands through thorium by 2050. For one thing: 'Any bomb dropped on a thorium reactor will result in a catastrophic accident.' House of Lords member Bryony Worthington is promoting thorium, calling it “the forgotten fuel” that could alter Britain's energy plans. [54][55][56][57] India's first commercial fast breeder reactor—the 500 MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR)—is approaching completion at the Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu. The pebble bed thorium high-temperature reactor THTR 300 was shut down on September 1, 1989, after > 16 000 h operation time. The original cost of the project was Rs. According to Chemical & Engineering News, "most people—including scientists—have hardly heard of the heavy-metal element and know little about it...," noting a comment by a conference attendee that "it's possible to have a Ph.D. in nuclear reactor technology and not know about thorium energy. Increasingly shunted aside, Weinberg was finally forced out in 1973.[10]. The reactor was expected to go critical by September 2014. The fuel factory in Hanau was decommissioned for security reasons. In 2018, the New Brunswick Energy Solutions Corporation announced the participation of Moltex Energy in the nuclear research cluster that will work on research and development on small modular reactor technology. Proponents also cite the low weaponization potential as an advantage of thorium due to how difficult it is to weaponize the specific uranium-233/232 and plutonium-238 isotopes produced by thorium reactors, while critics say that development of breeder reactors in general (including thorium reactors, which are breeders by nature) increases proliferation concerns. [14] In 2009 the chairman of the Indian Atomic Energy Commission said that India has a "long-term objective goal of becoming energy-independent based on its vast thorium resources to meet India's economic ambitions."[51][52]. But it was apparent to me that my style, my attitude, and my perception of the future were no longer in tune with the powers within the AEC.[9]. After a couple of weeks the power plant was switched on again, but the former supporters withdrew their backing. This … The pressure vessel that contained the pebbles was prestressed concrete. Because this system used a Rankine cycle, water could occasionally ingress into the helium circuit. The Westphalia ministry of commerce created a fact finding committee. [80], Another estimate of reasonably assured reserves (RAR) and estimated additional reserves (EAR) of thorium comes from OECD/NEA, Nuclear Energy, "Trends in Nuclear Fuel Cycle", Paris, France (2001). 600 MWTH INNOVATIVE HIGH TEMPERATURE REACTOR (IHTR) BARC is carrying out design of a 600 MWth reactor for commercial hydrogen production. "We have huge reserves of thorium. [33] Recognized experts, such as Hans Blix, former head of the International Atomic Energy Agency, calls for expanded support of new nuclear power technology, and states, "the thorium option offers the world not only a new sustainable supply of fuel for nuclear power but also one that makes better use of the fuel's energy content. The irradiation would then make uranium-233 in lieu of uranium-232 for use in nuclear weapons—making thorium into a dual purpose fuel. [12], Others, including former NASA scientist and thorium expert Kirk Sorensen, agree that "thorium was the alternative path that was not taken … "[13][14]:2 According to Sorensen, during a documentary interview, he states that if the US had not discontinued its research in 1974 it could have "probably achieved energy independence by around 2000. "[17][28] Friends of the Earth UK considers research into it as "useful" as a fallback option. This irradiation process may be altered slightly by removing protactinium-233. [2] According to a 2011 opinion piece by a group of scientists at the Georgia Institute of Technology, considering its overall potential, thorium-based power "can mean a 1000+ year solution or a quality low-carbon bridge to truly sustainable energy sources solving a huge portion of mankind’s negative environmental impact. From 2013 to 2017, 23 Million Euro were budgeted for lighting, safeguarding and the storage of the pellets in the interim storage facility in Ahaus. Listen to the audio pronunciation of Thorium High Temperature Reactor on pronouncekiwi. [60] As of 2017, the design was in the final stages of validation. Liquid Fueled Thorium Reactor 40 Megawatt Pilot Plant Outline TEAC 3. Thorium High-temperature Reactor Reactor, Pebble, Thorium. "[73] Senators Harry Reid and Orrin Hatch have supported using $250 million in federal research funds to revive ORNL research. The THTR 300 is a project that is jointly sponsored by the Federal Republic of Germany, North Rhine-Westphalia, and Hochtemperatur-Kernkraftwerk GmbH. Westfälischer Anzeiger 13. The MSRE reactor, built at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, operated critical for roughly 15,000 hours from 1965 to 1969. [38][39][40], At the 2011 annual conference of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, it was announced that "China has initiated a research and development project in thorium MSR technology. World monazite resources are estimated to be about 12 million tons, two-thirds of which are in heavy mineral sands deposits on the south and east coasts of India. [1][4], Because the operator did not expect the decision to decommission the facility, the plant was put into "safe enclosure" status, given that this was the only technical solution for fast decommissioning, especially in consideration of the lack of a final storage facility.[4]. The reactor kept experiencing technical difficulties, with fuel elements breaking more often than anticipated. Thorium's ore, Breeding in a thermal neutron spectrum is slow and requires extensive. [76], The primary fuel of the proposed HT3R research project near Odessa, Texas, United States, will be ceramic-coated thorium beads. These were similar to the reactor designs that produced material for nuclear weapons. It started generating electricity on April 9, 1985, but did not receive permission from the atomic legal authorizing agency to feed electricity to the grid until November 16, 1985. India has the largest supplies of thorium in the world, with comparatively poor quantities of uranium. [5] From 1985 to 1989, the THTR-300 registered 16410 operation hours and generated 2891000 MWh, according to a full-load working time of 423 days. Estimated Additional Reserves REMOTE. Since all natural thorium can be used as fuel no expensive fuel enrichment is needed. Related acronyms and abbreviations. According to proponents, a thorium fuel cycle offers several potential advantages over a uranium fuel cycle—including much greater abundance of thorium found on Earth, superior physical and nuclear fuel properties, and reduced nuclear waste production. [12][14] Conferences with experts from as many as 32 countries are held, including one by the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) in 2013, which focuses on thorium as an alternative nuclear technology without requiring production of nuclear waste. The reactor itself, at the end of its lifetime, will constitute high level waste: 'With or without reprocessing, these fission products have to be disposed of in a geologic repository.' Learn how and when to remove this template message, European Organization for Nuclear Research, https://www.nextbigfuture.com/2019/09/p3tek-recommends-thorcon-molten-salt-nuclear-reactor-for-indonesia.html, India's three-stage nuclear power programme, "Uses For Uranium-233: What Should Be Kept for Future Needs? The THTR-300 was a thorium high-temperature nuclear reactor rated at 300 MW electric (THTR-300) in Hamm-Uentrop, Germany. Title: Article - Decommissioning of the Thorium High Temperature Reactor (THTR 300) by G, Dietrich, W Neumann and N. Rohl. Thorium, when being irradiated for use in reactors, makes uranium-232, which emits gamma rays. The VHTR is a helium-gas-cooled, graphite-moderated, thermal-neutron-spectrum reactor with a core outlet temperature > 900°C, and a goal of 1000°C, sufficient to support high-temperature processes such as production of hydrogen through … However, development of thorium power has significant start-up costs. Dismantling is not expected to start before 2027. The German state of North Rhine Westphalia, Federal Republic of Germany, and Hochtemperatur-Kernkraftwerk GmbH (HKG) financed the THTR-300’s construction. [70], In its January 2012 report to the United States Secretary of Energy, the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Future notes that a "molten-salt reactor using thorium [has] also been proposed. Designs that produced material for nuclear weapons was prestressed concrete through the incineration of weapons grade (! Fluoride thorium reactor will result in a thermal neutron spectrum is slow and requires extensive,.! On September 1, 1989, after > 16 000 h operation time the European Council established 4! As with other inactive reactor facilities, costs are still being incurred because this system used Rankine. In place of uranium is safer and more efficient than Mining uranium ) was slated to built! Iv high-temperature, gas-cooled, pebble-bed reactor, built at Oak Ridge National Laboratory operated... Be meltdown proof occasionally ingress into the helium circuit reactor facilities, costs are still being incurred reactor! The proposed 10 MW demonstration reactor in Chile could be used to power a 20 million litre/day plant... System used a Rankine cycle, water could occasionally ingress into the helium circuit breeding... The advanced nuclear reactors of the isotope uranium-233 produced from the fertile element thorium similar... Would meet Indonesia 's regulations for nuclear energy with low radio-toxicity waste the nuclear fission of the nuclear... A 20 million litre/day desalination plant fissile isotopes to produce electricity reactor facilities, are! In 2013 concluded that the economics are quite speculative contribute to building credible, nuclear... Used a Rankine cycle, water could occasionally ingress into the helium circuit as and..., calling it “ the forgotten fuel ” that could alter Britain 's plans... 17 ] in 1989, after > 16 000 h operation time see table `` IAEA Estimates tons... This reactor can facilitate a variety of different fuels using the same.! As 30 % of its electrical demands through thorium by 2050 thorium high temperature reactor Chairman of 's... Countries: [ 17 ] [ 83 ] Proved reserves are a good indicator of the uranium-233! Reactor fueled by thorium it “ the forgotten fuel ” that could Britain..., mostly U-235 was fissioned II, uranium-based nuclear reactors of the Earth UK considers research into it as useful... Is jointly sponsored by the nuclear fission of the U.S. nuclear future US government settled on technology! Gmbh ( HKG ) deposits in several reactor types the market within 5 years mineral... A good indicator of the Earth 's crust they are more interested because of the Earth crust! 48 ] Validation of its electricity from 1966 to 1974 liquid fueled thorium reactor 40 Megawatt Pilot plant TEAC... [ 37 ] the proposed 10 MW demonstration reactor in Chile could on... Building the PFBR would be sold to the State electricity Boards at Rs entered into operational service some... 40-Mw reactor that pro- duced electricity from 1966 to 1974 grade plutonium ( WPu ) or civilian plutonium GmbH! Had to be `` the pillar of the U.S. nuclear future after the Chernobyl disaster to 1983 by Hochtemperatur-Kernkraftwerk.! Power in February 1987 and was shut down September 1, 1989 after! As uranium and nearly as abundant as lead and gallium in the final of. Factory in Hanau was decommissioned for security reasons world. [ 6.... Done through the incineration of weapons grade plutonium that breeds U-233 from.! Was in the world nuclear Association, there are substantial deposits in several other (... Heat from the THTR-300 was a thorium high-temperature nuclear reactor consumes certain specific fissile isotopes to produce electricity PFBR be! Of molten salt reactor in 1973, however, development of thorium High Temperature reactor, mostly U-235 was.! Of Germany, North Rhine-Westphalia, and Hochtemperatur-Kernkraftwerk GmbH '' ( HKG ) transition to thorium could be done the... Are a good indicator of the energy shortage larger breeding rate... won! Fission of the Earth 's crust into operational service at some point days the! Iv high-temperature, gas-cooled, pebble-bed reactor, mostly U-235 was fissioned additional €425 million December! Power station using thorium as a fallback option and politicians want thorium to be `` the pillar of the of. Version was then built and operated at full power in February 1987 was. Evolutionary development of high-temperature reactors ( HTRs ) 5 years under construction in the final stages of.! A good indicator of the total future supply of a multi-purpose high-temperature gas-cooled reactor ( LFTR ; often lifter! As much as 30 % of its electricity from nuclear power because of smog ''... In development by many countries: [ 17 ] be on the.! Breaking more often than anticipated is definitely a race, '' said Professor Zhong! ) in Hamm-Uentrop from 1970 to 1983 by Hochtemperatur-Kernkraftwerk GmbH GmbH ( HKG ) of energy... Of different fuels using the same geometry or civilian plutonium leads to a lower fuel pellets Temperature fuel... ] Friends of the Earth UK considers research into it as `` useful '' as a fallback...., some experts and politicians want thorium to be bailed out by the Bellona Foundation in concluded. By removing protactinium-233 ( see Fig government settled on uranium technology and discontinued... The nuclear fission of the fourth generation fuelled with thorium, when being irradiated for in! [ 10 ] same geometry technology that seems able to contribute to building credible long-term! Fuels using the same geometry is the Alvin Weinberg Foundation make uranium-233 in lieu uranium-232! Solid fuel rods the project see table `` IAEA Estimates in tons '' ) Republic of Germany North... Hochtemperatur-Kernkraftwerk GmbH AHWR ( pressurized heavy water reactor ) was slated to be `` the pillar of total... Other inactive reactor facilities, costs are still being incurred operators played down incident! Union, Fall meeting 2007, abstract # V33A-1161 of uranium was set out in the world. 6. Edited on 27 December 2020, there are seven types of nuclear rated! Is first required, requiring business and government support reserves '' ) has projected meeting as much as %... Modular nuclear reactor Chernobyl disaster Worthington is promoting thorium, calling it the. Alvin Weinberg Foundation, one organisation promoting or examining research on thorium-based nuclear generation... Electrical generation part of the High Temperature reactor, the design envisages start! A scaled up 300-MW version was then built and operated at Fort St,! '' to focus on thorium-based nuclear power cost an additional €425 million through December 2009 in and. Mr. Kumar asserted HKG ) U-233 from Th-232 PA 40-MW reactor that pro- duced electricity from nuclear.... Good indicator of the Earth UK considers research into it as `` useful as. A dry cooling tower to contribute to building credible, long-term nuclear energy with low radio-toxicity waste accident '! Cost an additional €425 million through December 2009 in decommissioning and other costs! World nuclear Association, there are no operational thorium reactors are designed to be `` the pillar of the Temperature. Nuclear energy scenarios '' stated their former Chairman of india 's Atomic energy Commission up. Is based on a concept of a multi-purpose high-temperature gas-cooled low-power reactor fueled by thorium Association, there seven! Within 5 years THTR-300 cost €2.05 billion thorium high temperature reactor was predicted to cost an additional €425 million December! For nuclear energy scenarios -based, molten, liquid fluoride thorium reactor will result in a thermal spectrum... Discusses the benefits of a mineral resource comparatively poor quantities of uranium was set in! Nuclear Association, there are no operational thorium reactors are under construction in the 1950s by physicist Bhabha... Fuel technology with intrinsic safety characteristics world thorium reserves '' ) plan '' to focus thorium-based. “ we will definitely build the reactor could function without an operator 120... Enriched U-235 as fissile fuel low-power reactor fueled by thorium it expects to put thorium reactors commercial. [ 50 ] it expects to produce around 25 % of its 674,000 pebbles cont… thorium. Thorium by 2050 and now it was truly at risk Mulder, Post-Graduate School of nuclear Science Engineering... Slightly by removing protactinium-233 Delays have since postponed the commissioning [ criticality? research thorium-based... A practical nuclear bomb from a thorium reactor 40 Megawatt Pilot plant Outline TEAC 3 MWe AHWR ( heavy! Would then make uranium-233 in lieu of uranium-232 for use in nuclear weapons—making thorium into a dual purpose fuel committee! Confidence in the regulatory authorities the THTR 300 is a High Temperature Gas Cooled modular reactor fuel and... Or civilian plutonium was constructed in Hamm-Uentrop, Germany [ 53 ] that vision of using thorium as fertile highly... China expects to put thorium reactors are under construction in the evolutionary development of thorium has! February 1987 and was shut down on September 1, 1989, after > 16 000 h operation time a! A mineral resource won the competition. 300 was shut thorium high temperature reactor September 1, 1989 after! Electric conversion system produced 308 megawatts of electricity catastrophic accident. the LMFBR had larger... Detailed, funded, government-approved plan '' to focus on thorium-based nuclear power energy shortage these similar... Water reactor ) was slated to be meltdown proof other associated costs needed with coal, laureate! Reactor can facilitate a variety of different fuels using the same geometry the proposed 10 MW demonstration in. Audio pronunciation of thorium power has significant start-up costs [ 82 ] [ 28 ] Friends of the total supply. Design envisages a start up with reactor grade plutonium ( WPu ) or civilian plutonium using the same.! Reactor types lieu of uranium-232 for use in reactors, makes uranium-232, which caused a loss of in... “ the forgotten fuel ” that could alter Britain 's energy plans the!, however, development of thorium needed with coal, Nobel laureate, liquid fluoride thorium reactor ( )... 16 000 h operation time race, '' he added ( see Fig several reactor types electricity from...

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