The railroads, in particular the Camden and Amboy line (a forerunner of present-day Conrail), played a crucial role in the state’s political life, dominating and controlling legislators and governors during the “robber baron” era of industrial expansion in the 19th century. However, after the court decision, disagreements between New Jersey and New York led to the sharing of jurisdiction over the island by the two states. Towns in New Jersey, such as Middletown which had many residents die in the attacks, suffered from the losses.[50]. They practiced small-scale agriculture (companion planting), such as growing corn and pole beans together and squash. Later, the Continental army slipped past Cornwallis's stalled army and launched an attack on British soldiers stationed at Princeton in the Battle of Princeton on January 3, 1777. 1804 - New Jersey becomes the last northern state to abolish slavery. In 1658, Director-General of New Netherland Peter Stuyvesant "re-purchased" the entire peninsula known as Bergen Neck, and in 1661 granted a charter to the village at Bergen, establishing the oldest municipality in the state. The British encountered little resistance, perhaps due to the unpopularity of the Dutch governor, Peter Stuyvesant. Between 1611 and 1614, three Dutchmen, A. New Jersey had no Lieutenant Governor position at the time, leaving a vacancy in the office. He sent a small English force to blockade the harbor at New Amsterdam. This was not enough to stave off 317 Dutch soldiers the next year, however. Energy was harnessed from the 77 feet (23 m) high Great Falls of the Passaic River. The famous inventor Thomas Edison was born in 1847. Signer Brearly was born in 1745 at Spring Grove near Trenton, was reared in the area, and attended but did not graduate from the nearby College of New Jersey (later Princeton). In 1524 the Italian explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano was the first European to reach New Jersey. [25] His most famous inventions included the phonograph, the kinetoscope, the stock ticker, the Dictaphone and the tattoo gun. Later James granted the land between the Hudson River and the Delaware River that would become New Jersey to two friends who had been loyal to him through the English Civil War: Sir George Carteret and Lord Berkeley of Stratton. The division continued until 1702, when the entire province reverted to the crown. for example William N. Jeffers of Salem County, New Jersey, build his political success on leadership with the Jacksonian forces at the local level, while at the same time building his fortune with a bank charter and building a steam mill.[26]. Transportation became much easier through the 1920s. Province of New Jersey (1778) - Faden The Province of New Jersey, Divided into East and West, Commonly Called the Jerseys Second Edition [of three] with Considerable Improvements Engraved & Published by Wm. He sent a small English force to blockade the harbor at New Amsterdam. In the year 1664, the Duke of York, proprietary of the province of New York, assigned to Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret the tract of country to the east of the Delaware River, and extending to the Hudson and the Atlantic. The Delaware and Raritan canal ran from New Brunswick, New Jersey, on the Raritan River, to Bordentown, New Jersey, on the Delaware River. Many of the colonists of New Jersey became farmers. [31] Fort Dix, in Pemberton Township, New Jersey, was also constructed in 1917 to help in the war effort. The two proprietors of New Jersey tried to entice more settlers to New Jersey by granting land to settlers and by passing Concession and Agreement, a document granting religious freedom to all inhabitants of New Jersey; the British Church of England allowed no such religious freedom. Around the year 1000, a Native American group known as the Lenape, later called Delaware Indians, settled in New Jersey. [33] All of the tunnels and bridges linking New York and New Jersey are managed by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, established on April 30, 1921. It historically tended to lean Republican, but, in the late 20th and early 21st centuries, voters more decidedly supported the Democrats, who have since frequently controlled the state legislature. 1876 - Thomas Edison opens his famous lab in Menlo Park. Membership includes those descendants who remained in New Jersey and those who have fanned out across the nation. On Election Day, November 8, 2005, the voters passed an amendment to the state constitution creating the position of Lieutenant Governor, effective with the 2009 elections. 1930-1932. New Jersey became one of the Thirteen Colonies which broke away from Britain in the American Revolution, adopting the Declaration of Independence in 1776. He hoped to secure Hobart Gap, from which he could attack the American headquarters in Morristown. Over 1,000 British casualties were incurred while the Americans lost 452 men. The retreat nearly led to disorder, but Washington managed to rally the troops to withstand two British counter-attacks, both of which failed. Although it was announced in advance that it was a radio play, the broadcast resulted in widespread panic into New Jersey and the surrounding areas. They moved as soon as game or plants became scarce. However, the meeting helped improve the strained relationships between the Soviet Union and the US. Locomotion was also improved; Hoboken-born inventor John Stevens built a 10-ton locomotive and his son Robert L. Stevens started constructing iron railroads. Greason, Walter D. "Suburban Erasure: How the Suburbs Ended the Civil Rights Movement in New Jersey" (Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 2013) 221 pp. Located at Paulus Hook it was part of the patroonship Pavonia, named (in Latinized form) for Micheal Pauw[8] who had bought the tract from the Lenape. The Hopewell tradition summarizes the common aspects of the Native American culture that flourished along rivers in the northeastern United States from 200 BCE to 500 CE. In 1776 New Jersey adopted its first constitution, which granted suffrage to women (although the legislature revoked this right in 1807). They manufactured many necessities, including clothing and war materials like ammunition. [48] Over 160,000 people were evacuated by ferries and small boats from the Manhattan area to New Jersey because the NYCS and PATH stations were closed down. A few days later, British General Charles Cornwallis hoped to engage Washington's army at Trenton after Washington recrossed the Delaware River, resulting in the Second Battle of Trenton. New Jersey; Beginnings [1]. Google™ Translate is an online service for which the user pays nothing to obtain a purported language translation. [9], Part of southwestern New Jersey was settled by the Swedes by the mid-17th century. They were hunting and gathering, hunting with bow-and-arrow, and using deadfall traps and snares. This action prevented the river from being easily taken by the English and Dutch, who were also trying to expand into the New World. New Jersey, A History. In September 1664, a British fleet under Nicolls' command sailed into what is now New York Harbor and seized the colony. New Jersey grew and prospered during the early 1800s. (See Port Newark-Elizabeth Marine Terminal). In the summer of 1783, the Continental Congress met in Nassau Hall of Princeton University. In May 1624, from a ship under the command of Cornelius Jacobsen Mey (after whom Cape May is named) thirty families were required to spread themselves throughout the region including Fort Wilhelmus. An internment camp housing people of Japanese, German, and Italian descent was located in Gloucester City. In 1938, Orson Welles produced The War of the Worlds radio broadcast. Its buildings were painted with protective camouflage patterns. Through the 1800s, over a dozen companies were operating railroad lines. The Battles of Trenton and Princeton are collectively referred to as the Ten Crucial Days because these desperately needed victories bolstered the morale of the nation. The Past Attorneys General link provides biographies and images of New Jersey's Attorneys General. Nike Missile Sites in New Jersey. Traces of their Algonquian language survive in many place-names throughout the state.[3]. Some important components of the second State Constitution include the separation of the powers of the executive, legislative, and judicial branches. Anywhere from 8,000 to 20,000 Delaware Indians lived in the area when the first Europeans arrived. The Duke of York, though he had conveyed away his powers of government when he sold the province to Berkley and Carteret, in 1664, unjustly claimed West Jersey as a dependency of New … The Province of New Jersey was one of the Middle Colonies of Colonial America and became New Jersey, a state of United States in 1783. In addition to these, air defense radar sites, bases for interceptor aircraft, anti-aircraft gun batteries, surface-to-air missile sites, and command and control facilities were constructed to defend against an attack by long range, nuclear-armed aircraft of the Soviet Air Force. During the Mexican–American War, a battalion of volunteers from New Jersey, in four companies, was active from September 1847 to July 1848. The Americans and … William Livingston became New Jersey's first state governor. The New Jersey legislature passed an act for the gradual abolition of slavery in 1804, providing that no person born after that date would be a slave. Politically, New Jersey is often a swing state in national elections. (Family History Library book 974.9 H2k, films 1697477 and 2055167 item 5.) Stories of New Jersey, "New Jersey in the American Revolution, 1763-1783: A Documentary History", New Jersey county information for students, Documents Relating to the Colonial History of the State of New Jersey,, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2012, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. The Standard Oil Company of New Jersey was a large integrated oil producing, transporting, refining, and marketing organization, founded by Henry H. Rogers, William Rockefeller, and John D. Rockefeller. The last major battle to take place in New Jersey during the Revolutionary War (and for the rest of the history of New Jersey) was the Battle of Springfield. [18] From 1701 to 1765, New Jersey's border with New York was in dispute, resulting in a series of skirmishes and raids. [11] C. A. Nothnagle Log House and Schorn Log Cabin are remainders of this early influence. Interesting Facts ; One of the original 13 colonies, New Jersey was an important battleground during the American Revolution. Between July 1 and July 12, 1916 a series of shark attacks occurred along the Jersey Shore in which four swimmers were killed and another severely injured. They came from the Mississippi valley. Paterson became the cradle of the Industrial Revolution in America. Standard Oil Company was split into 34 smaller companies as a result of the dissolution. Before the Europeans arrived, the Delaware (or Lenni Lenape) Indians had long occupied the region. The Lenape formed loosely organized groups who at first migrated seasonally. Named for the island of Jersey in the English Channel, its capital city is Trenton. Seventy-one stores were damaged and 46 people were injured. In the year 1664, the Duke of York, proprietary of the province of New York, assigned to Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret the tract of country to the east of the Delaware River, and extending to the Hudson and the Atlantic. During the brief stay in Princeton, the Continental Congress was informed of the end of the war by the signing of the Treaty of Paris on September 3, 1783. [34] Under the Works Progress Administration, part of the Second New Deal by FDR, many new jobs were provided in order to support the poor, including the expansion of Fort Dix, Roosevelt Park in Edison, and Rutgers Stadium in Piscataway. Purvis, Thomas L. "The European Origins of New Jersey's Eighteenth Century Population,", Levine, Peter. The publication of this survey helped to increase the state's involvement in agricultural research and direct support to farmers. The agricultural products from New Jersey usually were transported to larger markets in New York City and Philadelphia, requiring better transportation. By 1833, The Camden & Amboy Railroad had been completed, allowing a 7-hour passage between Philadelphia and New York City. General Greene successfully stopped a two-pronged attack from entrenchments held across the Raritan River, preventing the British invasion. [2], Later other Native Americans settled in New Jersey. On April 15, 1702, under the reign of Queen Anne, West and East Jersey were reunited as a royal colony. After the war, many of these companies and plants shifted to chemicals, making New Jersey one of the world's leading chemical producers. Later another was built at Fort Nassau. While approaching a mooring mast at Lakehurst, the zeppelin suddenly caught fire, and within 34 seconds the entire hydrogen-filled zeppelin was engulfed in flames; 36 people died in the disaster, most of them leaping from the burning ship. Native Americans moved into New Jersey soon after the reversal of the Younger Dryas; before then an ice sheet hundreds of feet thick had made the area of northern New Jersey uninhabitable. The Province of New Jersey was one of the Middle Colonies of Colonial America and became New Jersey, a state of United States in 1783. Camp Merritt, in Cresskill, was activated for use in World War I. New Jersey is referred to as the "Crossroads of the Revolution" because the British and Continental armies fought several crucial battles there. In the summer of 1967, urban residents, primarily African Americans, rioted for five days in Newark and the neighboring city of Plainfield. 1912 - New Jersey governor Woodrow Wilson is elected the 28th President of the United States. Prior to this bill, the state had no income tax. Insisting that John Cabot had been the first to discover North America, the British granted the land that now encompasses New Jersey to the Duke of York (later James II & VII), who ordered Colonel Richard Nicolls to take over the area. The riots are often cited as a major factor in the decline of Newark and its neighboring communities. One of the first European explorers to see the land that became New Jersey was Henry Hudson, who in 1609 sailed along the coast in his ship the Half Moon. The police sealed off many roads to prevent the kidnapper's escape, and interrogated the members of the Lindbergh household. New Jersey was one of the original thirteen colonies that joined in the struggle for independence from Great Britain. In 1756, the school moved to Princeton. Because of its strategic location on the East Coast, New Jersey played an important role in the United States' Cold War defense. (New Sweden's colonial population may have peaked at 368 people in 1654, after being boosted by more than 250 people along with new governor Johan Rising. They lived here starting at least 10,000 years ago. Each province was independently governed and passed laws specific to the region. Peter Stuyvesant surrendered to the English without a fight. The Motivation for Founding the New Jersey Colony . During the next four years, on somewhat secretive missions, Adriaen Block explored and mapped the coast along Delaware, New Jersey, Long Island, and New England, naming it for the first time New Netherlands. As New Jersey moves through its fourth century of history, it continues to fulfill its potential as a diverse and richly gifted state. Trenton, which had served briefly as the national capital in 1784, was made the state capital in 1790. This tension led to race riots, the first of which occurred in Jersey City on August 2, 1964, causing heavy damage. The Zierdt site in Montague, Sussex County and the Plenge site along the Musconetcong River in Franklin Township, Warren County, as well as the Dutchess Cave in Orange County, New York, represent camp sites of Paleo-Indians. Paleo Indians were hunter-gatherers, hunting game and gathering plants for eating. Publication date 1868 Topics Elizabeth (N.J.) -- History, Union County (N.J.) -- History Publisher New York : Carlton & Lanahan Collection Princeton; americana [37] Nearly 500,000 residents enlisted for the war,[38] more than 10% of the total population of New Jersey. Woodrow Wilson (1911–13), who signed legislation providing for tighter regulation of corporations (later repealed). New Jersey was then ruled by the governors of New York, but this infuriated the settlers of New Jersey, who accused those governors of favoritism to New York. The New Jersey Colony was founded by Sir George Carteret and Lord Berkeley in 1664. Later, systems of canals were built, the first of which is called the Morris Canal and ran from Phillipsburg, New Jersey, on the Delaware River to Jersey City, New Jersey, on the Hudson River. Throughout the colonial era, New Jersey was agrarian and rural, attracting a diverse population of … [44] at the Glassboro State College. After the war, it was converted into a demobilization center. The airfield, currently known as McGuire Air Force Base, was opened in 1937 as Rudd Field, a supporting Army airfield for Fort Dix. Many industrial cities like Paterson and Camden grew strong through Civil War production. Faden, Charing Cross, December 1, 1778 Scale: "about 69½ British miles to a degree" (roughly 6.6 miles to 1 inch) Copperplate map,… Education came through small religious schools, private academies, or tutors. The newly opened port quickly made the docks of Brooklyn, Lower Manhattan and Hoboken obsolete. He also is credited with improving the designs of the incandescent light bulb, radio, the telegraph, and the telephone. From August 11 to August 13, 1964, similar riots occurred in Paterson and Elizabeth. "[35] It described extraterrestrial monsters that were causing much destruction. With the advent of the bow-and-arrow and of pottery around the year 500 A.D., extended family groups began to stay in areas longer. During the war, Naval Weapons Station Earle in Monmouth County was opened for naval production and provided ships with a safe port to take on ammunition. The story of the area of present-day New Jersey begins at the end of the Younger Dryas, about 15,000 years ago. Several Allied ships were sunk off the New Jersey coast. They divided the land in half and gave control to two proprietors: Sir George Carteret (who was in charge of the east side) and Lord John Berkley (who was in charge of the west side). The State of NJ site may contain optional links, information, services and/or content from other websites operated by third parties that are provided as a convenience, such as Google™ Translate. On December 18, 1787, New Jersey became the third state to ratify the United States Constitution, and on November 20, 1789, New Jersey became the first state in the Nation to ratify the United States Bill of Rights. Gunners in the fort prevented German submarines from entering New York Harbor. In the Paterson riot, twenty stores and other buildings were damaged, and eight people were injured. However, the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which banned alcohol manufacturing & sales, was later repealed by the Twenty-first Amendment in December 1933. The Motivation for Founding the New Jersey Colony In 1664, James, the Duke of York, received control of New Netherland. William Paterson, a New Jersey statesman, introduced the New Jersey Plan, by which one vote would be given to each state, providing equal representation within the legislative body. Paleo-Indians first settled in the area of present-day New Jersey after the Wisconsin Glacier melted around 13,000 B.C. Listeners were told that a "huge, flaming object ... fell on a farm in the neighborhood of Grover's Mill ... twenty-two miles from Trenton. The colony had originally been settled by the Dutch as part of New Netherland, but came under British rule after the surrender of Fort Amsterdam in 1664, becoming a proprietary colony. The settlement grew slowly, impeded by mismanagement of the Dutch West India Company and conflicts with the indigenous population known as Kieft's War and The Peach Tree War. Unemployment services are only accessed through that site. The right to vote was restricted to white males in 1807. The legislature did this in 1975 but failed to fund it. In 1947, the current New Jersey State Constitution was ratified, reorganizing the state government. Welles and the other broadcasters were not punished by law, but were held under a brief informal "house arrest" for a short period. In 1609, Sir Henry Hudson sailing for the Dutch East India Company,[5] explored the East Coast including the Delaware, Raritan, Newark, New York bays and the Hudson Valley. Baron von Knyphausen, the Hessian general, hoped to invade New Jersey and expected support from colonists of New Jersey who were tired of the war. Former Governor James E. McGreevey resigned on November 15, 2004 after charges of pay-to-play and extortion scandals involving the impropriety of the appointment of an unqualified long rumored homosexual love interest. Until 1738 a single governor ruled New Jersey and New York. The first permanent European settlement was established by the Dutch at Bergen (now Jersey City) in 1660. Discover how New Jersey's industrial might, exemplified by the Trenton Iron Works, contributed to the Union military effort during the American Civil War. Stuyvesant grew haughty in his treatment of his opponents and threatened to dissolve the council in response to an angry outbreak at a meeting of commissioners in September 1650. Block, H. Christiaensen and C. Mey surveyed land between the 40th and 45th parallels along the Atlantic coast and named the area they surveyed New Netherlands. They spoke an Algonquian dialect. Public dissatisfaction with the power of the trusts and public utilities reached a high point at the time of the election of Gov. Initially, small out-posts were built for the fur trade. He started the Motion Picture Patents Company. In the aftermath of these riots, 135 people were arrested.[42][43]. The first ocean-going steamboat went from Hoboken, New Jersey, sailed around southern New Jersey, and ended in Philadelphia. Like much of the rest of the United States, New Jersey entered a prosperous state through the 1920s. The exact line between West and East Jersey generally corresponded to the Keith Line between present day South and North Jersey and was created by George Keith. "Molly Pitcher" has sometimes been regarded as a real person, although historians now often believe the story is a myth, although probably loosely based on the actions of real women. After the battle, Charles Lee was court-martialed for his poor command. The governorship has tended to alternate between Republican and Democrat. Edison worked in Menlo Park, and was known as "the Wizard of Menlo Park" for his many inventions; over the course of his life, he was granted 1,093 patents. Printz helped to improve the military and commercial status of the colony by constructing Fort Nya Elfsborg, near present-day Salem on the east side of the Delaware River. In 1790, Trenton officially became the state capital of New Jersey. He was electrocuted in the New Jersey State Prison in Trenton, New Jersey. Contents. The Benjamin Franklin Bridge was completed linking Camden and Philadelphia in 1926. Many people had believed the bulletin to be real, causing them to flee the New Jersey area or to blockade their homes to ensure safety from the reported monsters. The New Jersey Colony was one of the Middle Colonies of Colonial America and became the U.S. state of New Jersey in 1776. The last was on the east bank of the Delaware River,[6] the site of the first European settlement in what would become New Jersey. Descendants of Founders of New Jersey; a society of those associated with the earliest development of our state. New Jersey. En Español David Brearly, New Jersey Brearly (Brearley) was descended from a Yorkshire, England, family, one of whose members migrated to New Jersey around 1680. The scene was immortalized in Emanuel Gottlieb Leutze's painting Washington Crossing the Delaware,[22] and displayed on the New Jersey State Quarter. A master plan for the state’s development, first adopted in 1992 and subsequently updated, aimed to direct growth toward existing infrastructure. The British take-over in 1664 was formalized in 1674, ending the province of the New Netherland, though the North Jersey would retain a "Dutch" character for many years to come. Peter Stuyvesant surrendered to the English without a fight. [45], In 1973, the New Jersey Supreme Court ordered the legislature to pass a statute funding schools more equitably for impoverished areas. The second version of the New Jersey State Constitution was written in 1844. [15] However, the two proprietors found collecting the quitrents difficult, and on March 18, 1674 Berkeley sold his share of New Jersey to the Quakers.[16][17]. In its early years of statehood, New Jersey concentrated on rebuilding its economy from the damage done during the war. The majority of the colonists lived in simple log cabins, coming from the original Dutch settlers. [32] It was used as a training and staging ground throughout the war. In 1676 the province was divided into East and West Jersey, the former going to Sir George Carteret and the latter to a group of Friends (Quakers). [27] Thousands of former slaves—both from rural New Jersey and the South—migrated to shore communities like Red Bank, Long Branch, and Asbury Park during the last decades of the nineteenth century, creating sizable, stable communities that persisted over the next century. No specific agreements were reached, especially in the area of restrictions on anti-ballistic missile systems. However, despite the fertility of the soil, farmers were forced to struggle due to the dearth of English money. Historians have examined the emergence of the Second Party System at the state and local level. European contact began with the exploration of the Jersey Shore by Giovanni da Verrazzano in 1524. Their name means "original people" or "genuine people." King Charles II had granted the lands between the Connecticut and Delaware Rivers to the Duke. In 1524 the Italian explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano was the first European to reach New Jersey. At the time of European contact, many tribes of the Lenape lived in the area. The Native Americans and Paleo-Indians fished in all rivers and streams using nets and fish hooks and by hand. 23,116 of those soldiers served in the Army of the Potomac. In the Battle of Trenton which followed the crossing, the American soldiers surprised the Hessians, capturing nearly 900 prisoners in 90 minutes and taking supplies that had been meant for the British army. 1884 - Grover Cleveland is elected the 22nd President of the United States. Bergen, founded in 1660, was New Jersey's first permanent European settlement. The new constitution also provided a bill of rights. [20] Both political parties in elections mocked the other for relying on "petticoat electors" for allowing women to vote. 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